Lots of things to unpack here but your best solution, with the gear you have, is analog out to sprout. Yes, you’ll hear benefit of the high resolution material in this configuration.
Digital vs. Analog. An analog signal is always “full resolution”. Reason… let’s talk about what digital audio is…
Sound in a pressure wave, that can be presented by an electric signal, and that wave is reproduced in your space when a thing, your speaker, pressurizes the air in response to the electrical signal it receives. On the analog side of your system these electrical signals are represented by small voltage fluctuations in your cables and electronics and then those small changes are amplified by the amplifier to much larger voltage changes to move your speaker.
Now, digital stores these voltage fluctuations in bits of data. But bits of data are not infinite like our analog world; our analog world can produce infinite pressure change. So, in digital we sample the fluctuations. The higher the sample rate the higher the resolution. High resolution audio is just sampling the analog at a higher rate to give us a lower chance for error when it comes time to reproduce the sound.
Now, I’m generalizing over some complicated stuff here but the take-away is to know… The high resolution source material provides you with, or should provide you with, a more accurate analog signal once the digital to analog conversion (DAC) is complete. You want to use the highest quality DAC you own and, in this case, may very well be the Oppo. This is why, yes, you’re gaining benefit by letting the Oppo feed the Sprout an analog signal.
HDMI… is both a standard for communicating digital information (a language) and a connector / cable standard. DACs can have HDMI connectors but they are not using the HDMI “language” to talk to other gear. They use I2S and there is no standard for this (different manufacturers use different pins on the HDMI connector to make this work0. For this reason, you cannot take a standard Oppo, which is using both HDMI connector and language, and plug it into a Direct Stream DAC. While the Oppo is using the HDMI connector it is not talking the I2S language needed to talk to the Dirext Stream… unless…
Which is why this suggestion came up. However, the reason you’d want I2S out of your Oppo is because you believe you have something further down the chain which will do a better job of converting the digital bits to analog. That isn’t Sprout (my opinion). The Oppo is a good DAC. Let it do the conversion until you have a great DAC and then you’ll want to identify how to get that DAC fed the bits from your high resolution source material.
Good luck and don’t forget to enjoy the music.