Compatible I2S source devices


Maniac, yes for sure. I should send some picts on few days. But, here are how I proceed:

  • I soldered the PIN header on the Hecate card, but if I would have to redo the project, I’d avoid it. Because, the only pins you need are:
    GND, DATA, BCLK, LRCLK => That’s all

  • I cutted a bit (9cm length) the I2S wires of the HDMI module and added few connectors to connect on the Hecate header as well.
    Note that WCLK on AudioGD is named LRCLK on Hecate. Don’t forget to connect the ground GND.

  • All MasterClocks I2S pins (MCLK) are staying in the Air => not connected at all.

  • The AudioGD is for the moment powered by a 6V battery followed by a standard LM317 with a variable output (fixed to 3.3V).

Note that on my AudioGD HDMI module, the I2S wires are soldered on the module. Audophonics told me that sometimes it is a header, sometimes it is delivered with soldered wires like mine…

With a SBC NanoPI Neo and DietPI, as the DietPI kernel (4.11.12) is not compiled with the XMOS patch, the USB output can only produce DoP, so reading a DSD 128 file produces DoP up to the Hecate but the Hecate outputs in Native DSD 128 on its I2S output.

I’ve tested RoPeee, which is compiled with the XMOS patch for Native DSD, and in this case reading a DSD 128 file produces Native DSD up to the Hecate and the Hecate outputs in Native DSD 128 on its I2S output.

I’m still on a “prototype” mode, I mean, I have to optimize several things, but it work !

For the moment, I’m waiting for 2 very low noise regulators, and I’m trying to make disipearing of my USB cable. I mean, I try to use the USB output pins on the NanoPI Neo (no equivalent on RPI3 as far as I know ;-)), and I want to connect these USB pins to the Hecate board with a self made USB cable, very short, less than 10cm, with good cable and isolation.
I believe, I’m close to get it work, but it seems I have to activate the overlays USB at the OS level to activate these USB pins controller on the NanoPI Neo :slight_smile:

maniac said

Do you use 1meter HDMI cable or does it require shorter one?


To complete my answer, I make it work honorably with a very standard HDMI cable (1,5m). I got a slightly better one, and I think with a better isolation of 1m working as well too. May be I would have to purchase a good HDMI cable later. For the moment it's ok.


So it seems to be able to make I2S from Hecate via AudioGD working i need to get some 3,3V power adapter/battery - will need to investigate what would be the quickest way, while not degrading SQ.

Many thanks Patrick - i am looking forward for photo you plan to send too! :smiley:


The Hecate board has an integrated 3.3V power line dedicated to the XILINK processor in the isolated end (the one with I2S and SPDIF outputs). I tried to pick up some juice on this integrated 3.3 psu of the Hecate to feed the AudioGD module. It works but the sound quality is noticeably degraded. So not recommended at all. I do not think a battery is mandatory, but instinctively I would say a good PSU is recommended. The AudioGD module consumes only 30mA. For this 3.3V power line, my initial aim was to use a set of UltraCAPS in front of a low noise regulator, but I see that later.

maniac said Many thanks Patrick - i am looking forward for photo you plan to send too! :D
After a busy week-end spent to build a triple PSU + the combo NanoPI Neo, Hecate, I2S/HDMI LVDS module, I did not complete this night and can't evaluate the sound quality, but I'm closed to the end. Here are some pics.

The 2 green modules are 2 LT3045 regulators (ultra low noise, low VDO bought on, a 5V/1A and a 3.3V/500mA.

The PSU block has 3 linear outputs, one for the NanoPI+the Hecate, one for the HDMI module and a last for my ethernet switch.

I’d like to rework the internal USB link between the NanoPI and the Hecate, I’ve made with silver cables but badly managed.

The I2S link should be replaced with a shielded cable but I was afraid by the desoldering operation on HDMI module…



Well, the project is almost completed, the setup works (althought I had to reinstall DietPI on the microSD, as if the NanoPI did no longer want to boot correctly).

The network switch is not yet plugged on my new home made power block (3 outputs, 12V, 10V, 7V) and there’s still few things to arrange but the most important is there. The NanoPI and the Hecate board are now powered by the small LT3045 regulator (5V/1A) and the AudioGD HDMI module by an independant regulation line with a smaller LT3045 regulator (3.3V/500mA). I had to say that these regulators cards seems well built (bought on ebay @ lvdor).

Now, the SOUND :slight_smile: For few weeks ago, I already used the combo (Armature Hecate + AudioGD HDMI + either the NanoPI or a RPI3 SBC) with Roon bridge and Dietpi. I tried also Ropieee which permits to stay in native DSD (not DoP) between the SBC and the Hecate board. The Hecate boards always output in Native DSD (when DSD is presented in input) up to DSD128 (limited by the Directstreal actualy). The whole was powered by one small linear 5V PSU and a small 3.3V regulator (LM317) with a 6V battery. I already found the sound quality very good on this setup.

I only had a relatively short listening, but the new power lines brings more clarity and details. I would say a also gain in soundstage. I’ll let pass the satisfaction to be at the end of a long work to not interfere on my judgement on the SQ, but it is obvious that it works better than before :slight_smile:



Due to consecutive time constraints I had to wait a bit before be able to do some deep listening of the NanoPat Streamer (just to name it :slight_smile:

Before telling how the small animal is sounding, I want to thanks PSAudio for its openness for sharing very rich information in its forum (especially Ted and Paul) and all contributors on this thread who presented their projects or questions. My turn to share here all the decisions which drove to chose the components and assemble this setup. I’m not a god in electronic and all choices have been made in a context of time/price and self judgement (surely not a super reference, thought). So I guess there’re in my choices surely things not aligned with some experts considerations or targeted expectation from anyone.

Hope, this could help anyone to build its own solution but sorry in advance for the long postembarassed.

The initial target: Build a streamer as an endpoint feed by either a Roon or UPNP Server or LMS elsewhere on the network, paying as most as I can most attention to the power supply, with the aim to use SuperCaps on the last stage. The streamer must also be very low in power consumption to minimize EMI and its output must be isolated electrically to avoid ground loop with the DAC (a point I believe only partially reached). Take the opportunity to have a PSU for my network switch closed to the Hifi system. The whole built by assembly of a set of cards, no PCB to design and produce.

The project took 1 year and lot of equipments not necessarly in the toolbox of everyone (maybe a FabLabs at proximity would be a great option).

To remind, the result at this time (NanoPat):

An external linear power bloc (with multiple outputs with filtering and classic regulation lines) powering a separate SBC with DietPI, an USB/I2S interface and I2S LVDS/HDMI module, the last 3 being themselves powered by ultra low noise regulators (2 Linear LT3045 modules). The SBC, LT3045, interfaces are in a second metal box (see pictures).

The SBC:

The RPI2 and 3 are of course good candidates or even better the Allo Sparky board better designed for Audio but

the NanoPI is a bargain, it has sufficient CPU/RAM power to assume its role but that’s not all:

  • 2 USB ports on its PIN header, so you can solder your own and very short (less than 10cm) USB cable to the I2S interface
  • Low power consumption, only few hundred mA if you reduce the CPU clock (did it at 624MHz on quad cores, works perfect)
  • No feature totally unnecessary for the project (no Wifi nor video output)
  • Small size
  • Supported by the great DietPI OS (unfortunately not by Ropieee).
Note that the download area of the DietPI website is a good reference for a list of SBC on the market.

The I2S interface:

Here, a long dilemma took me between many options, but the Armature Hecate seemed to come with all I wanted:

  • Support of all formats (native DSD included),
  • A galvanic isolation of its output with its own dedicated power supply (unfortunately not able to correctly feed the AudioGD HDMI module)
  • Two good oscillators,
  • Like the oscillators, the USB processor XMOS U208 is reported by several feedbacks on audiophiles forums as a reference
  • The SPDIF output gives out of the box an idea of the performance of the card
The internal LT3045 regulators of the NanoPat: 77_gif

The LT3045 is recommended for medical applications, thought. As an obsessed audiophile, this sounds good for me .nospeak_gif

There’s a lot of regulators to provide 5V and 3.3V. The LT3045 seems to come as the one having an ultra low noise and may be one having the best regulation (PSSR, the output variation).

Besides that, it manage overheating, over current and undervoltage detection. It is able to drive 500mA but if you double it you gain in noise rejection and power can go up to 1A. Hum…just sufficient for both the NanoPI and the Hecate board.

The external PSU:

Many of us (audiophile) reject all switching solutions because of the pollution they can produce on on our Hifi setup. Its an established fact, don’t know if it is always justified as I used with pleasure a switching IFI Audio PSU in 5V and the result was positive. But the doubt … So the purpose was to build a multiple PSU to power the streamer and my network siwtch. External, because it is in a separate metal box which can be placed at a reasonable distance from the other “sensible?” elements.

About SuperCaps:

As the HDMI module needs a very low current (30mA), it sounds to me that it would be a good idea and relatively easy and cheap way to setup a bank of supercaps with their low ESR characteristic in order to meet may be the benefits of a LPS1 Ultracap and to really isolate the last stage in contact with the DAC. I can’t achieve this goal for the moment, while the amount of work to complete what is already done was huge for me. Moreover the benefits of Supercaps, as they are presented here, seems finally not guaranteed to me.
Does it worth it without powering all the other electronics components (SBC + Hecate board) too ? Is seems easy to power a 3.3V module while many of the SuperCaps are 5V (so we are in the range). But powering a 5V SBC, require to find out more than 5V Supercaps (rare and costly) or introduce a kind load balancing control to avoid over voltage of the Caps. I’ve brought a symmetrical +4V/-4V regulated power to the SBC/Hecate part (up to the LT3045 5V), so putting few 5V SuperCaps on positive and negative lines before the LT3045 regulators coud do the trick. But a real ground isolation would need 2 banks ? One being charged, the second discharging and powering cleanly the streamer. I’ve also no measurement solution to check if it worth it, except may be the SQ it could produce. See that later…

Some open questions:

  • Why not use the 3,3V of the LT3045 regulator in replacement of the embedded power circuit in the isolated part of the Hecate board ?
  • All these internal regulators on the NanoPI and the Hecate board, what to think about them…
  • Is it easy to unsolder the native I2S cables on the HDMI module to replace them with shorter and shielded silver cables ?
  • Is there any interest to replace the HDMI module by one of the new modules I discovered few days ago on the electronic dealer I use ? Some of them require a 5V instead of 3.3V but they have their own embedded regulator (not identified)?
  • Would it be an improvement to place some some grounded metal separation inside the box of the streamer? For example to isolate the NanoPI SBC from the output module ?

Now how the NanoPat is sounding ?

The first impressions was right, the result is awesome. So it may be not the best, I would have to compare it, but the improvements over the several steps is clearly at a new level. As already said, I lived few weeks with the NanoPat streamer prototype, i.e, without the full 2 new power lines (external PSU and LT3045). It was powered by a classic PSU and even a better AQVOX PSU + a battery with a small regulator for the HDMI module. The other version before was just the NanoPI alone or the RPI3 alone. Each step brought a better SQ.

This new setup is stunning, the amount of new micro informations is incredible and the sound stage seems now far more accurate. I gain a bit of clarity too. The different vibes between each track is well perceived as ever. Very very Happy !!!happy-132_gif

To sum up, such project takes energy, time, money and tools. Not sure if I would not reconsider the idea with more importance given to the option to buy a good streamer « on the shelf ». It is certainly possible to do simpler or go even further. If there were one or two components which seems to be the keystone, who they are ? Not sure, but one hypothesis: in the chain from the ROON (or UPNP) server, up to the last stage before the DirectStream, the more you go closer to the DAC, the more it is important to take care to the power quality and interconnections (cables). Just an hypothesis from a neophyte.

Seegs108 said

It’s been talked about before. However, in my opinion, using such a device to get I²S to your DAC is kind of pointless because to get the audio to that device it needs to be converted to a transport format (to use the USB input). The whole point of using I²S should be that you never have to convert to another format thus avoiding potential conversion errors and unfortunately the Sonore device forces that to happen.

Let's think about this:

You buy a DAC you like and some time later an inexpensive converter comes out that has a better clock in it. Also, what if it had some isolation scheme your DAC doesn’t have via USB. Don’t get me wrong I have made the same argument about going direct into your USB input, but it depends.

There is always a conversion taking place. Be it Ethernet to i2s or USB to i2s. I’m not aware of any hard drives that store audio as i2s…so there is no free lunch. Also, taking i2s out of a pi is tricky. You have to reclock the pi because it does not have the correct rate on its clock, include isolation because it doesn’t have it, and add clean power because you connecting to computer. Finally, all those connectors needed to get this done are not good for the audio signal.


Hi Patrick,

I´m curious about your route, I few months ago I did post here some ideas about using a interfeca like yours and someone ask me why I will use too many conversion to send I2s, so today I’m using RPI 2 with Allo Reclocker and HDMI output to DS, also using some regulators as you and I can tell you it’s sound awesome, but maybe I’m missing something, could you please tell me your findings?




Hi Alexandre, yes I remember well, don’t know if it was me or not (it’s possible yesblush_gif), who argumented on reducing the number of transformations so targeting a more straightful I2S chain. So far, at the moment the Kali Reclocker was limited and had some problems if I remember well. We was waiting for a solution from Audiophonics (which come far far later as expected) and from Allo. Seems now we have both. But the time being, I decided to test the Armature Hecate board and was stunned by the result so I decided finally to build something around.

Besides that, a point which had its weight in choosing the Hecate was its galvanic isolation we do not retrieve on the Kali boards (I hope to be right as I did not look at their new spec recently) and the fact I had the project to power up the I2S/HDMI module with 2 (small) banks of SuperCaps.


How is this solution better than the Mano Music Streamer?


@Speed Racer I can’t say if it is better or lesser. And it sounds to me it is not easy to provide an answer if we just compare what we see on displayed spec sheet while in some case a less featured solution can sound better for lots of reasons (quality of cables, case agencement, engineering …).

So, just to remind, it is a DIY project, not industrialized, I tried to put the best components I can (I guess I used some times a mass to crush a fly) in an empirical context (no precise measurement tools to confirm the choices). The price can be the engine which lead to go on the DIY way instead of buying an “on the shelf” (and improved) solution, but it is even not proven that a DIY is cheaper at equal feature (surely be most customizable).

I don’t know which interface the ManoStreamer is using but now what I see as differences, is:

  • ManoStreamer use a galvanic isolation for its LAN connection, and it is may be important, I just went to plug the 12V of NanoPat external PSU to my ethernet switch and I feel that there’s a gain, a more relaxed presentation^^. 1 point for the ManoStreamer

  • The NanoPat has an external PSU in charge to perform a first regulation stage (with all radiating components). The streamer box embeds only the 2 last regulation stages chosen for their ultra lower noise characteristics.

  • The NanoPat, on paper, cost me a bit less if we do not count the time (just sum the components of the streamer, plus those in the external PSU with two 220V/36VA and 220V/8VA transformers + 2 regulation cards at twenty Euros approximatively).

  • Don’t know if the Mano streamer is isolated on its output, The Hecate board has an isolation.

  • The NanoPat is built by me, it’s my child now, I love it. +1 point for him wink

Patrick said - The NanoPat is built by me, it's my child now, I love it. +1 point for him wink
I'd like to adjust, it's not only my baby as I rely a lot on the Audiophile community.

I thanked previously PSAudio, Paul, Ted and all other participants of this long thread (Alex and lot others).

Something on which I’m not totally at my ease as I’m wondering how a such DIY thread can, in an certain manner, cause harm to PSAudio? I mean, may be less LAN Rover or PSAudio Bridges sold ?? I don’t know how Paul considers this point and sometimes I say to myself that this I2S thread should be closed by the moderator, how many “bad” ideas are transmitted that lead to Not buy a PSAudio product ?? May be not so much, but…
Anyway its a pleasure, to exchange with open minded people of PSAudio.


Patrick, you’ve done a wonderful job of documenting your journey! Not sure I followed everything, but it has been fascinating to see the extent to which you have gone to solve your “problem”. I don’t think you have any need to worry about PS Audio, Paul has been very open in his interest in what other tinkerers are doing with his products or those that interface with them. I think it is highly unlikely that your efforts will put a significant dent into PS Audio sales since the knowledge required to do this as well as the effort would eliminate a good portion of the folks here. Personally, I might have been interested in something like this 20-30 years ago, but now I’m more interested in the off the shelf solution. It’s reassuring to see their are folks out there who have the ability to think and create!


@pmotz thank you for the encouragements. Actually I thought about all the DIY solutions presented here, not only mine, but you’re right the amount of work, for a non professional, to come up to a functional solution is huge.

I’m discovering the few discussions on Octave and Bridge 3, sure that PSAudio is preparing something with a very high level far in advance on all we can try to produce at the DIY level cant-believe-my-eyes-smiley-emoticon_gif


@patrick thank you for sharing the journey in 1st place! I have just ordered the same regulators as you are using. I have 5v 1,5A linear PSU which is intended to feed Hecate 5v and 3,3v via low noise regulators from the same 5v output. Is this OK or you have experience that 3,3v requires (or in other words really benefits) dedicated psu even with the ultra low noise regulators you are using?

For the 5V regulator input are you using 5V PSU or 6+V psu?

I have to decide by tomorrow which (if any) linear psu to order to finish (without the casing) my i2s streamer for DS DAC so i would really appreciate your experience here :slight_smile:

thank you!

P.S. i have noticed big capacitor in parallel with input to 3,3 regulator - what specs is it in what is it’s function?


@ Maniac Sorry for the late answer, I was on the road. Hope it is not too late for you.

If think it’s a pity to feed the Hecate 5V and the 3,3V module with the same PSU. This because, the Hecate board put in the game many care to isolate its output (I2S) from its Input (USB). They use some top notch galvanic (magnetic cells) isolation and a full dedicated 3,3V. The small black box on the board produce a 3,3V from the 5V with a separated ground ((it seems to be this component). All numeric signals are isolated too. Thus is you re-use the same 5V PSU to power both the USB 5V of the Hecate and the I2S/HDMI module (even through the 3.3V low noise regulator), you’ll share the same ground for both. The HDMI module must be grounded with the 3,3V of the I2S output of Hecate. Don’t know if I’m clear, sorry.

If you can, use your 1,5A Linear PSU to power only the Hecate board on its USB input and another 5V PSU (100mA is sufficient) to feed the 3,3V LT3045 you bought. The LT3045 accepts up to 20V. The LT3045 is a Low Voltage Drop Out, only 300 or 500mV, so a 5V in input should be sufficient.

Here are the options, you have, and, to understand, keep in mind the I2S ground of the DirectStream input is connected to the I2S/LVDS ground of the HDMI module, then to the I2S ground of the Hecate output:

  1. Re-use the 5V PSU you use for the Hecate Input. As just said before, you’ll link all the grounds everywhere, so, you lose all the benefits of the isolation implemented on the Hecate board.

  2. Put a new transformer + a diodes bridge + a cap (to filter the 100Hz sine ondulations). The LT3045 card will regulate to 3,3V as expected. The USB ground and the I2S ground are no longer linked (like in previous option). But in some manner, I’m wondering if the fact to use a transformer will not bring some noise to the DAC (don’t forget the DAC’s I2S ground input is connected at the end). On this point it’s not clear in my mind, as I said I’m not a god in electronic, especially about EMI and so on, sorry.

  3. Use a battery (6V, 9V or even 12V) to power the LT3045 3,3V regulation board that will power the I2S/LVDS HDMI module. The battery’s ground is, as well, connected to the isolated 3,3V of the Hecate. By this way, there’s no ground loop possible, the ground takes end at he Hecate’s I2S output level. This sounds a good option, the battery is not heavily loaded (only 30mA) but it is not the most convenient, I mus admit.

  4. Use 2 banks of SuperCaps. The first is “energized” by a PSU, while the second is used as PSU to feed the LT3045 3,3V and then the I2S/LVDS HDMI module. You need a load-balancing mechanism to switch from 1 bank and then to the other bank when this last is discharged. This option seems the best, and should be simpler to implement than a LPS1 UltraCaps from Uptone Audio. The 3,3V/30mA we need should not require big SuperCaps and working at 3,3V is an advantage. It is easy to find affordable SuperCaps at 5V, while higher voltages are more difficult to find or setup. Using SuperCaps instead of a battery (option 3) is a proven advantage in audio if you look at the feedbacks on the LPS1 UltraCaps. Many UltraCaps have a very low internal resistance compared to the internal resistance of a battery.

The NanoPat is, for the moment, built on the Option 2 design, although my initial aim was to build the Option 4 dull_gif. I’ve put a low ESR audiophile capacitor 3900uF 16V from Panasonic (the one you noticed on the picture) in order to filter the last stage. I believe the LT3045 has its own filtering cap, so I don’t know if the Panasonic brings something or not. In my open questions in a previous post, I still have the interrogation about the importance to power the Hecate’s input (as well as the SBC that feed the Hecate with data) with as much care as we take for the HDMI module…

You didn’t talked about the SBC or computer you use and the USB cable between it and the Hecate board. How do you separate the 5V of the computer to the 5V to feed the Hecate ? wink

EDIT: NanoPat is built on Option 2 (not 3)


Thank you Patrick, the PSU i have today have two separate outputs - 5V and 12V. I use 12V to power switch in my audio chain and 5V to power Rpi3 and Hecate - i have made custom short cable for PSU to be able to connect up to 3 USB cables to PSU.

I also have JCAT USB splitted cable connected on one end to Hecate and other two ends as following : data connected to RPI (via AQ Jitterbug) and power end to the same 5V PSU as RPI3.

Theoretical problem is the PSU is only 1,5A while rpi3 can consume up to 2,5A, but in reality it seems that rpi running only RoonBridge is not consuming much as it works stable in this setup :slight_smile:

Other theoretical problem i am afraid of is that Rpi and hecate are fed from the same PSU thus ground pollution might affect Hecate input.

My friend is going to buy something from audiophonics and i want to use this opportunity to buy one more PSU (as postage from Audiophonics is about 20€ here to Slovakia).

The options for new PSU i see are (current PSU will be used for 3,3V I2S only as you have suggested):

  1. 5V PSU 3,5A - would power both RPI and Hecate USB

  2. 2x5V 1,5A - one rail would power Rpi and other Hecate USB

I would be happier with option 1 as it have enough power to feed rpi even under heaviest load and not overloading the psu, but i am not sure if this shared power between Rpi and Hecate would not negative impact on the Hecate SQ? What is your experience please?

Option2 would allow to have dedicated PSU for all components however the rpi3 would still run from 1,5A PSU as today making me nervous if it will not overload the PSU once the load (like some OS upgrade on Rpi etc.) would happen…


EDIT: just to add what i am trying to achieve - i am happily using Bridge2 as my main reference which is connected to ethernet via TP-Link optical transceivers and i am trying to build streamer which would have better SQ thank the Bridge2 - which may be pretty hard but i still hope :slight_smile: I suspect that having external streamer would benefit mainly by removing load done by B2 on the DS Dac internal PSU and removing EMI/RFI caused by B2 inside the DAC… Having abibility to stream DSD128 would be also nice benefit…


Maniac Sorry I think I can’t report a relevant feedback on SQ differences if you feed the RPI and the Hecate by two separates PSU versus both feed by a common linear PSU.

Actually, I tested the replacement of an IFI Audio iPower 5V/2,5A PSU by a basic switching 5V/2A PSU for the SBC (RPI3 or NanoPI) + a separate AQVOX 5V/1A dedicated to the Hecate. The difference was not obvious in this case. The real jump occurred when I upgraded to the NanoPat configuration with the 2 LT3045 regulators (thought, a common PSU for both SBC and Hecate). Besides that, there are too many differences coming with the NanoPat design in more than the LT3045 (my AQ Jitterbug removed, a new very short/silver USB cable, the self made separate triple PSU …).

However I believe the recommended 2,5A PSU for the RPI3 are overrated when we use it like us for an audio bridge purpose, without WIFI activated nor big eaters USB devices connected (see this page). The Hecate seems to not consume a lot. But, to be frank I would be nervous like you at each OS upgrade for example. And all measurements I took did not reveals the peaks…

Did you think about the option to build a double PSU with a 2x9V transformer and such regulation here ? You could feed both the RPI3 and the Hecate. On the datasheet of the module, they say to use a 3300uF filter caps which should be sufficient with a 9V AC as input (seems risky to go below 8V). You could keep your current PSU for the network switch and the HDMI output.

I’m curious to get your feedback wen you’ll complete your project (especially the comparaison with the BridgeII) happy-048_gif


@patrick I was out to mountains during new year so I was not able to reply sooner. So i ended up ordering two PSUs from Audiophonics - one 5v 3,5A (for RPI) and one dual 5v 1,25A which will be used for Hecate - one rail for 5V USB input and other rail for 3,3V GD Audio I2S interface. I was trying to save some money by buying just one PSU, but it seems really the best solution will be to have it separated. I am still waiting for delivery of the Ldvo regulator boards. The only issue I have is that now the cumulative cost of this solution is on level where I could buy ready made Singxer SU-1 USB :slight_smile:

Yesterday I was comparing the RPI3 + Jitterbug + Uptone USB Regen + Hecate via SPDIF and bridge2 (both streaming from Roon) - the bridge2 is still better, so I am now curious once the regulators for Hecate will be delivered and connected how this will end up :slight_smile: